Corruption has nothing to do with the income level, but personal greed.
Corruption is thought to be a significant problem in much of the developing world. Corruption not only imposes a tax on public services and private sector activity; it also creates potentially severe efficiency consequences as well (Krueger 1974, Shleifer and Vishny 1993, Bertrand et al. 2006)
Corruption is the misuse of entrusted power for private gain. Prof. Dr. Petrus C. van Duyne (Tilburg University) define corruption as “an improbity or decay in the decision-making process in which a decision-maker consents to deviate or demands deviation from the criterion which should rule his or her decision-making, in exchange for a reward or for the promise or expectation of a reward, while these motives influencing his or her decision-making cannot be part of the justification of the decision.”
While MACC (Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission) definition on corruption stated that: Corruption is the act of giving or receiving of any gratification or reward in the form of cash or in-kind of high value for performing a task in relation to his/her job description.
The main forms of corruption are bribery, embezzlement, fraud and extortion. Political corruption takes place at the highest levels of political authority. It is when the politicians and political decision-makers are themselves corrupt, and use the political power they have to sustain their power, status and wealth. It is when policy formulation and legislation is tailored to benefit politicians and legislators.
Corruption in the public sector hampers the efficiency of public services, undermines confidence in public institutions and increases the cost of public transactions.
High rate of corruption in the civil service related to personal greed and lack of contentment.
Corruption wastes public money by diverting it into the hands of corrupt politicians, businesses and their agents. It steals wealth from countries and places it in tax havens for the benefit of corrupt individuals.
Corruption costs the government millions of public money every year. Corruption is the same as stealing from the people when public servants do not deliver services people are eligible to and what the tax payers pay them for.
Corruption can happen at any level in the public service. The risk that they tempted into corrupt or unethical behaviour correlate as they have more power and access to resources people have.
We want to build a nation with the citizen as its reason for being and thus its sole focus and responsibility. It is imperative that our society must be governed by the rule of law administered by a trustworthy, fearless, impartial and efficient judiciary.
Ending corruption requires public and political organising to demand that political leaders represent public interests, not the interests of rich individuals and powerful companies, and to hold them accountable. Transparency, accountability and public participation are key elements in this, as are strong and independent systems of audit, and courts prepared to prosecute, fine and ban corrupt companies and officials.
Integrity is essential to resistant corruption lure.