The various floor framing systems available in the market can be categorized into four groups: cast-in-place concrete floor systems, open-web steel joist systems, precast concrete floor systems, and emerging systems.
Cast-in-place concrete slab floor systems are the most flexible floor systems. It provides the designer with the freedom in floor plan designs.
Open web steel joists are light weight and easy to install. Metal decking generally used to form a thick composite slab. The utilities can pass through the joist openings, saving the height needed for the utilities.
Precast concrete floor systems can be made of a wide range of precast concrete products, such as hollow core slabs, solid slabs, double tees, and inverted tee/rectangular/L-shaped beams. These products can be also used in conjunction with steel beam and cast-in-place concrete topping in some applications to satisfy design requirements.
Hollow core slabs have longitudinal cores running through them, the primary purpose of the cores being to decrease the weight, and material within the floor, but maintain maximal strength. To further increase the strength, the slabs are reinforced with steel strand, running longitudinally.
Solid Slabs – normally made of reinforced concrete but other materials are called plates. Thickness of plate depends on span but 200 mm is common in residential houses or buildings.
Double tee unit consisting of two pre stressed ribs with an integral floor connecting top slab. Double Tees typically span up to 19 m, and provide a safe platform, directly after placing, for subsequent work.
Inverted tee beams in flooring system comprises of inverted T’s pre stressed floor beams 180mm high with polystyrene insulated blocks.
In emerging flooring systems, the depth of flooring systems are made to minimize by combing steel and precast concrete products.
Using precast concrete floor will enable floors to be constructed for all loading conditions without the bounce associated with timber joists and precast floors do not creak or squeak in use.
With their high load carrying capacity and long spans, floors in precast concrete allow complete freedom of room layouts, with the option to use block partitions on all floor levels.
Floors are fast to install as the structural elements of the floor are delivered to site ready for use.
Precast concrete floor units are also ideal for suspended flooring to following levels, being quickly and safely installed to provide an instant safe platform for following task.
Precast concrete floors also exhibits excellent and fire resistance properties. Precast floors offer a fire resistance element ranging from a full half hour to two hours depending on the floor type.
The precast concrete floor is suitable for under floor heating systems. It provides high thermal mass solution.
Source : The Precast Flooring Federation, ACP (Concrete) Ltd, Sirbegovic Grupa, Stresslite and Henin, Eliya, “Efficient Precast/Prestressed Floor System For Building Construction” (2012). Construction Systems – Dissertations & Theses
(this article written for 1BINA.my)